Tuesday, January 28, 2014

Mind Mapping for Helping Natural Language

I have been fascinated with mind mapping since I first read Tony Buzan's  book on this topic many years ago. I used it quite a lot when I was studying English, to learn vocabulary sets, the structure of some compositions, as well as to brainstorm the structure of essays and assignments. 


What is Mind Mapping?

Mind mapping is a strategy for helping students order and structure their thinking through mentally mapping words or/and concepts. According to Tony Buzan it is a way of helping students takes notes that used only key words and images. They are much quicker to make, and because of their visual quality much easier to remember and review.

This strategy helps students quickly relate a central word or concept. The mind forms associations almost instantaneously and 'mapping' allows you to write your ideas quicker, using only words or phrases.

But, some years ago Mind Maps were drawn by hand on large sheets of paper (I still do!). Nowadays they can be produced using computer programs, like the ones I would like to share with you today. 

Online Apps



Mind42. With a very clean and friendly interface, Mind42 can embed images from a local searcher and can preview links in the text. 


Mindomo. Another online mind mapping app with a free version. You can create, edit and share maps with colleagues and friends as the others do.



MAPMYself. This is an easy -to-use online app that you can try for free, but you can get more features with a monthly payment. 


Wisemapping. A free web site combining collaborative working web 2.0 with vector technology.


MindMeister. A Web 2.0 app for collaborative working in real time. You can get a free basic version or a Premium one with a low cost. 


    mapas mentalesBubble.us. Free online app for brainstorming and collaborative working. 


    Offline Apps


    Freemind. A free Java platform software for mindmapping. You can create mindmaps and publish them in a web or a wiki.

    MindMaple. It has a good clean interface which is pretty intuitive for anyone familiar with 'Office' type software. It comes with a library of images and graphics and you can import in your own photographs and illustrations too.



    XMind. Multilanguage platform for mindmapping in the computer. You can either choose a free personal version or a professional one. (Available for Windows, Mac Os and Linux). 

    MindNode. One of the best options for Mac users. It has also a version for IPod and IPad. 


    hacer mapas conceptuales
    Semantik. Local KDE (Linux) software, studdents oriented. It is really useful for creating documents in a very easy and quick way: presentations, speeches, reports...


    mapas conceptualesRecallPlus. A Windows software (only Windows) for students. It has got two categories: (1) Visual organizer/concept mapping/presentation software; and (2) Revision/Flashcard software, a structured revision of Q's and A's.


    Labyrinth. Local GNOME (Linux) software with essential edition functions for creating mental maps. It can export in different image formats: SVGPNG y JPEG. You can use it in different languages.


    Vym (View Your Mind). And Easy-to-use Mind map software. It is very useful for time managing and organizing tasks. It only works on Mac Os X and Linux platforms.  


    The Brain 8. This is a multiplatform app with a free version and a payment one. It includes a calendar with which we can plan our heuristic maps chronologically. 

    Bonus



    Mindmaps for Kids by Tony Buzan  "
    Learning how to learn is life's most important skill" —Tony Buzan.

    Tuesday, January 21, 2014

    Plurilingualism dimension in the ESL class

    First of all: Plurilingualism or multilingualism?

    "Plurilingualism is a situation wherein a person who has competence in more than one language can switch between languages – from one language to another and vice versa – according to the circumstances at hand for the purpose of coping with a social matter.

    Multilingualism, on the other hand, is connected to situations wherein multiple languages exist side-by-side in a society but are utilized separately.

    Plurilingualism is derived from bilingualism. A consequence of plurilingualism is pluricultural competence.
    In general, persons who are identified as plurilinguals had had contact with foreign languages through educational institutions; however the education system plays only a small role in the linguistic competence of these individuals". 



    Triptic_conductors_mulitlingue_NEUCAT.pdf
    The teaching and learning of foreign languages has become paramount for the European identity construction, and intercultural and multilingual education contributes to the integral development of the individual.

    The ability to interact with different languages makes communicative competence to take a new dimension as it can transfer knowledge from one language to another, it opens the range of resources to facilitate access to information and it allows social relationships.

    During this school year I have planned different activities for the students to be in contact with different languages at the same time.

    Some of these activities have been carried out with multilingual documents and they evaluate plurilingual strategies that students should be able to use for comparisons in the lexicon, in linguistic structures of different languages and in the making of new words from their own language.

    For this, I have used multilingual instructive documents that come with lots of gadgets: a device operating instruction, instructions of a game or a recipe... I have used more complex texts as well: brochures of a castle, a park, a museum or exhibition.


    For the activity described here I used the document "Pla d’Emergències davant les nevades” (Emergency Plan before snowfall)", published by the Generalitat of Catalonia in four different languages: Català, Castellano, English and Française

    It can be done in two sessions, as long as it we have previously worked this dimension and plurilingualism strategies during all the primary education. I started the activity by reading the text in one language. Then, we observed the structure of the text: title, subtitles, paragraphs, key vocabulary...


    Then, we compared the text and its grammatical structure, observing regularities between languages, common structures and common functions. We also practice some strategies for the comprehension of different texts in a multilingual environment.

    Finally, I proposed a worksheet with three activities (in my case the instructions are in Catalan, but if the level is good enough it can be written in English), and I left time for solving them (without the help of dictionaries, of course!).

    Since the objective of this work is to evaluate Plurilingualism and Intercultural Competence, students worked alone and were evaluated according to a rubric designed for this specific purpose. A self evaluation was also done in order to reflect on the strategies they used to complete the tasks.

    You can get the complete plan, worksheet and rubric of this task in




    Saturday, January 18, 2014

    Rethinking Classroom Assessment with Purpose in Mind

    Classroom-based assessment has tremendous potential to enhance student learning. When assessment is designed with purpose in mind, learning for all students can improve.

    The document I would like to share with you all identifies three purposes of classroom assessment: assessment for learning, assessment as learning, and assessment of learning.

    Some readers may be more familiar with frameworks that use only two categories: assessment for learning and assessment of learning. In those frameworks, the category of assessment for learning would include ideas related to both the assessment for and assessment as learning categories described in this document.

    The category of assessment as learning is included to highlight the importance of the self-monitoring processes students use during learning, which has great potential to empower learners and foster ongoing learning.

    Rethinking Classroom Assessment with Purpose in Mind is intended to provide a framework for extending thinking, to confirm and to guide changes in effective assessment practices, and to foster professional learning. While this resource offers some common vocabulary for assessment, its focus is on ideas, rather than labels, that teachers can reflect on, discuss, and try out in classrooms. The document contains highlights from current research, descriptions of assessment processes that enhance learning, case studies from classrooms, and suggestions for professional dialogue and collaboration.



    2006 Manitoba Education, Citizenship and Youth in collaboration with its partners in the Western and Northern Canadian Protocol for Collaboration in Education (WNCP). http://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/

    Thursday, January 02, 2014

    Competent students vs. competent systems

    This is an old paper that need to be reviewed, but as the importance on basic competences learning is growing up related with scholar success, I think we don't have to miss what is actually the "real horizon".

    --------

    In 2006, Spain adopted a new Education law (LOE-Ley Organica de Educación) and in 2009 all schools in our country were required to implement their curriculums based on this law.
     
    Its major change came in the treatment of the basic competencies (Key Skills in UK) in all the areas of the curriculum and the necessary skills students need for the learning process along their lifetime. The European Education Commission encouraged its Member States to direct their educational policies towards this direction for the improvement in quality and efficiency of the different systems of education.

    Basic competences in the Spanish Curriculum
    The Basic Competence is defined as “the capacity to respond to complex demands and carry out diverse duties successfully. It involves a combination of practical skills, knowledge, motivations, ethic values, attitudes, emotions and other social components that work jointly in order to achieve an effective action”. (1)

     “The improvement of students’ performance and the mastering of key skills is a challenge for all European countries, which will assess their achievement revealing the evolution of essential skills in students. They will take into account every socio-cultural and economic context to establish appropriate measures for improvement in schools and to review education policies in general”. (2)

    For more than two years we have been using this new curriculum. I think most teachers have a clear concept about basic competencies and they design activities, projects and tasks to develop them. But, have real changes been taken place in the classroom? Are we using competent methods? Are we lack of ideas?

    It was supposed, by the school year 2010-2011, that the application of this new curriculum will cut dramatically, the number of students with low results in reading, mathematics and science, reported in the National Evaluation tests. But we are far away from this goal. We are facing several drawbacks, impedes and paradoxes to develop lesson plans based on Basic Competences.

    I think it is time to reflect about it.

    Planning and working by basic competencies in the class has led most teachers (nursery, elementary and secondary) to a considerable change in its methodology.
    Premises for a competent activity

    Of course, many teachers have already been using project working for years: globalizing the proposals, taking into account the cross curricular studies, designing multidisciplinary tasks and giving value to the procedures as a way of research in the preparation of the final learning goal. But, it is unfortunately true that many other teachers have "stuck" either in the "ready to use" lesson plans, offered by textbook publishers, or in the “few” guidelines provided by the curriculum framework.

    Spanish curriculum has changed very little due to its saturation of content, and that makes it a tool rather useless according with the flexibility and connectivity that demands the competencies. And this led the whole system to a strong contradiction.

    Inventing gadgets as a way to integrate competencies
    The spirit of teaching by competences and its ultimate goal is Learning for Life. This is something impossible to follow when we need our students to take their own responsibilities in the learning process and when we have not yet defined what exactly students need to know to success in life.

    So perhaps, the first thing we should have reflected is about what are those skills of paramount importance students must develop during their compulsory schooling. And, of course, listen to the professionals (infant, primary and secondary teachers) and respect their opinion on whether this is suitable a curriculum based on basic competences, or what competences they should have more weight in the teaching-learning process.

    In general, the curriculums of the most successful countries in PISA reports are flexible instruments, adaptable and changeable in its content and its application. They are tools to ensure their usefulness to professionals who use them. They are a reflection of the society in which they apply and they are significant tools, full of values and content for the students’ education in all areas of life.

    So what happens to us?

    Basically we have a crowded curriculum in any area, making it difficult to link the transversal competencies with the basic ones. This makes it clear a static view of knowledge and the impossibility to give dynamism and diversity which it is an essential demand of our classrooms, our schools and their socio-cultural contexts.

    Art, the most estrategic competence
    Planning units of work by competencies should focus on students and its learning, with a maximum contextualization. This is the only way that students will interpret the world around them and will provide them with tools to modify, transform and build their society.

    The main objective aim of our job is to teach for life. This can be achieved planning from a focus topic or a centre of interest or a scenario based on the experiences, knowledge, and aspects of everyday life of children and their environment. But, the different life streams, the emotional and cultural experiences established in the classroom entails the constant need to review the annual, quarterly, weekly, or even daily planning!   

    There is no lesson planning that supports the life of the class.

    Planning by competencies has many advantages but also some disadvantages. The topics which have been designed and focused on an area have no limits. The real-life situations that we try to work are, sometimes, highly complex and always go beyond their limits, becoming "oil spots" that spread in all directions. So if we want to systematize the teaching-learning process from this topic, this will drive us to coordinate with other teachers of the school involved in the classroom and spend an indefinite time in developing an interdisciplinary program based on real contexts.

    Identifying, sorting, classifying...Thinking and organizing!
    We do not either forget to think if the planned activities really develop transversal as well as specific competences:  they must be functional tasks; they must facilitate students’ autonomous work; and the contents must be integrated into the constellation of concepts, procedures and attitudes, as rated in our previous educational system.

    Reprogramming or "restoring" the planning?

    The few instructions given by the new curriculum on lesson planning by competences have left us with a dilemma. It can be assumed that, by simply adding a section in the planning with the competences we want to cover in the unit, will be enough: it is just an "upgrade" of our planning. Maybe this will make us feel comfortable but we will be still far away from working by competences.

    There should be a deep reflection that goes beyond the names and words in a grid. We must move towards fundamental changes in education. And these changes have to be produced in the classrooms from Preschool to High School.

    Along with content, tools, strategies and procedures, we must insist on values associated with cooperation, pluriculturalism, multilingualism, sustainability, tolerance ... that drive our own methodology to cooperative work and dialogue, project work, analysis and problem solving situations, criticism and discussion. And above all, to observe and take care of complex relationships of children with the group, taking benefit of the wealth that the group brings to children...

    But who knows about that?

    The society itself who is directed the curriculum, knows nothing of it. We can check it at the meetings for parents at the beginning of the school year.  There has not been a public debate or adequate information. The professionals of teaching, who are those who have first hand information, neither took part in the construction of the new curriculum.

    Furthermore, we do not forget that basic competences are not a cure for all problems and endemic illnesses of our educational system.

    For the future it sees a choice between two policy directions:
    • a pragmatic approach, as inBritain, of strengthening the existing base of key competencies.
    • an alternative view that a broader and more holistic set of key generic skills is required.
    Project working and problem solving: the right moves!

    We are still far from a global change in the system. I feel that our curriculum has remained in a draft, in a statement of intent. It lacks definition. It needs to establish clear criteria on the fundamental contents. It must be flexible enough to be put into practice in each and every school situation of our country. It must take into account immigration. It must be more holistic than pragmatic and, especially, it must teach for life, which means to educate for democracy.


    References
    © Enric Calvet